APA Parenthetical Citation

Today we're going to talk about how to do parenthetical references in an APA paper.

So this is when you're typing your paper and you have to show where a quote or where you got your information from in the paper. These are those little parentheses. O.K. So the first thing we've got our paper set up here. I've got my paper set up with my title page in APA and if you need help with doing that, there's another video on the website that will show you how to setup the your paper in the basic format. O.K. So we've got the second page here. I'm not going to do an abstract for this paper just for the sake of time for this we could do an abstract but let's just say we're just going to start the paper here. Here's the title and over here the last page of the paper we have our references. Now I just have one reference trend is going to be working with this one reference today taking all my quotes from here. So we've got this we're going to keep referring back to this.

O.K. So I'm going to start my paper probably we could start the paper like this but let's just say it's... O.K. I'm going to use something I learned from this paper. Rationalistic supernaturalism was a term used in England to describe, I'll go back and correct the typos in the second - the first of the four stages of doubt. O.K. Now if I put a period here, let me go correct this typo, if I put a period here this means I came up with this idea on my own. O.K. And I didn't. I got it, I got this from this book. O.K. This is this was this guy's idea so I have to show that that was his idea so how I do this, I'm not going to put a period here. I'm going to put a parenthesis, give the author's name, and it's just a general idea I got from his book. 2005, parentheses, and then period. So that's one thing that's a little strange, you put the period at the end of the parentheses. So, we're showing this idea is is one of the basic ideas I got from this guy's book here, Watson's book, "Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention." The book was published in 2005, so just for a basic reference to this, I'm going to show the at the end of the sentence I'm going to show the author's name comma and the year the book was published. So there are other ways you could do this as well. You could say, you could put it in into the body of the sentence. Watson so I'm going to give the author's name. Watson (2005) clearly explains this idea. You could also do it in the middle of a sentence. You could do - While... You can also do it even without some for us as much parentheses. While Watson (2005), clearly differs with this assumption. Alright, so this is the basic way that you do this. Now, if you're going to use a longer quote, if you're going to use more of like a direct quote from him one of his sentences there's a couple ways we can do this. If the quote is less than 40 words, you can put it into the body of the sentence like this. It has been argued that, (here's his quote) "the advent of doubt could not but (and I'll correct these typos) but have a major effect on ethical thinking."

O.K. There's the end of his quote. Now again I'm going to wait for the period. Now I'm going to the parentheses, Watson's, referring back to his book, comma, 2005. Now since I'm using a direct quote, I have to tell what page it came from. It came from page 525. O.K. So I'm using a direct quote from him I'm using part of one of his sentences. It has been argued that, and it's less than 40 words, so I can put it right into my sentence. It's been argued that, quotation mark, here's his words. Here are his words. "the advent of doubt could not but have a major effect on ethical thinking." That's a direct quote from him. So then at the end of this quote again I'm going to wait for the period. I'm gonna put parentheses, Watson, that's the author's name, comma, the year it was published, comma, since i'm using this direct quote, the page that it came from. O.K. That's how you do a smaller quote. Now, if it's a larger quote, if it's a larger quote, it would be done like this. Let's say it's more than 40 words. O.K. First we're going to introduce the quote. It is also - please forgive my typos - emphasized that Voltaire took a great deal of inspiration from the life of Sir Isaac Newton. O.K. How many typos did I make here? It's also emphasized that Voltaire took a great deal of inspiration from the life of Sir Isaac Newton. So I'm introducing this larger quote.

O.K. Don't just throw a big old quote in your paper, introduce it and show us that you understand what it's talking about. Give us some context for the quote. So, I've introduced the quote. Now I'm going to drop a big quote in here. So I've introduced it, now I'm going to have to indent the whole quote without quotation marks. O.K. So i've introduced this quote now I'm going to give the big quote. During the time the Voltaire spent in England the most significant episode for him was almost - and I'm going to fix this at the end - certainly the death of Sir Isaac Newton. An old man of 84, Newton was president - so this is a big quote - of the Royal Society and held in highest esteem. O.K. It's a big quote here. O.K. So now what I'm going to do, I'm going to indent all this. O.K. So I've introduced the quote here, put a colon at the end of my introductory sentence, then I'm going to indent this whole quote, I don't need quotation marks around it. Then, at the end, this is strange. Now we do put a period at the end of this big quote which is you notice we haven't done that so far. We always put the period at the end of the parenthese. But when it's a large quote like this, and let's see do I have 40 words 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, yeah we've got about 40 words. If it's a big quote if it's a quote this big let's let's set it off. There may be a little less than 40 words there but that's kind of the rule. I'm I don't want to bore you with all of my typing here. O.K. We've got the period at the end of the quote. Now, just like the other one, Watson, the year it was published, page 527,

O.K. No period at the end. All right so these are the differences. If it's a small quote, you can just incorporate it into your sentence just like this with quotation marks and then at the end, the author, the year it was published, and the page it came from, period at the end. If it's a larger quote. O.K. If it's going to take up a significant amount of paper here, let's introduce the quote. Introduce the quote put a colon at the end and then indent the entire quote over. No quotation marks. Do put a period at the end of the quoted material. And then give us a parenthesis, author's name, comma, year it was published, and page by 527. Again, this is all what is all this Watson mean? It's all referring - Watson, 2005 - this is telling us, if someone wanted to verify this quote, they could go to page 527 of this book published in 2005, by Watson. So it's actually a pretty simple system. There's just a few rules you have to follow. Hopefully this makes sense to you. If you have any questions please contact me in the library.